As Australia is a vast country, it has to be divided into different zones to be able to make statements about the weather. In the following we have divided Australia into its’ states.
The state New South Wales can be divided into four main areas. There is a coastal strip, a mountain range which is called the Great Main Divide (about 100 kilometres inland from the coast), the Blue Mountains and the Snowy Mountains. As the name Snowy Mountains already suggests, they can be capped with snow in the winter. In general the weather gets hotter the further North you get and dryer the further West you go as you near the Outback.
Sydney has the highest rainfall in March and June and has a moderate climate throughout the year. The summers are reasonably warm with the average temperature ranging around 25°C. The days can be a lot hotter than this though and temperatures can go up to around 40°C. Even in winter the temperatures rarely drop below 10°C. Humidity levels constantly range between 75 and 78%.
The Australian Capital Territory usually enjoys warm summer days which can also become very hot. In winter, the days can be anything from really cold to nice and warm days with a lot of sunshine.
Canberra usually sees very little rainfall all year round and in autumn the humidity is at its’ highest. In winter the temperatures can go down to freezing, but the average highs in summer tend to stay below 30°C.
The state of Queensland can generally be divided into 3 main parts, namely the coastal area, the Great Dividing Range and the Outback which awaits behind the mountains of the Great Dividing Range. Coastal Queensland basically has two seasons, the wet season (from November to April) and the dry season (from May to October). The wet season can bring severe flooding and road closures due to these floods. From January to March the wet season is at its’ peak.
Cairns sees most of its’ rainfall from January to March, but also gets a lot of rain in July. Cairns tends to be rather humid all year round with warm to hot summers and colder, dryer winters, with humidity levels easing during the Australian winter.
Brisbane has the highest rainfall from December until February. As in Cairns, the humidity levels are constantly high with a slight ease during the Australian winter. In general Brisbane has warm summers as opposed to the hot summers in Cairns and mild winters, where the temperatures usually do not drop below 15°C.
The state of Victoria can be divided into three main climatic areas. There is the coastal area which the South of the state is generally counted to as well, the alpine areas in the Australian Alps and everything that lies land-inwards (North and West) from the mountain range called the Great Divide. Temperatures see 4 seasons with summer from December to February and winter from June to August. The temperatures can greatly vary between the South and the North of the state and the more predictable and stable weather is found in the North and the West, behind the Great Divide.
Melbourne has very little rainfall all year round with the driest period being between January and March and humidity can range around 80% during the winter months. The winters can be relatively cold with fresh southerly breezes from Antarctica and temperatures can drop down to 5°C and less. Summers in Melbourne tend to be really nice with temperatures ranging around 25°C, but occasional hotter days in-between.
Tasmania’s Southwest and West see lots of rain while the East coast is warm and sunny. There are 4 seasons but temperatures are always rather on the cold side due to the island’s closeness to Antarctica. The winters are cold and wet, but storms can bring weather like that even on the hottest summer day.
Hobart sees a moderate and consistent monthly rainfall of less than 100 mm. In winter the humidity rises as it gets colder and wetter. Temperatures can go down to about 5°C and in summer it stays mild with temperatures in the early twenties.
South Australia consists of 2 main climate regions, namely the Outback (which makes up about 80% of the state) and the coast. The climate is considered to be Mediterranean, which means hot summers and cold winters. Even though summers can be really pleasant, the Outback regularly tops temperatures of 40°C.
Adelaide is rainy and humid in winter and temperatures fall below 10°C. In summer it can get really hot with the average temperature ranging around 28°C but warmer days in between.
West Australia mainly consists of desert and therefore has many arid and semi-arid areas. The North is tropical again with shorter wet and dry seasons than the Northern Territory though. The South-West of the state is temperate all year round with very wet and cold winters.
As Perth lies in the South West, most rain falls in July and August, when it is also very humid. The temperatures go slightly below 10°C in winter and range about the low 30s in summer.
The lower three quarters of the Northern Territory are counted towards the Outback with desert-like conditions prevailing. The Northern quarter of the State is considered to have a tropical climate with a wet and a dry season. It is generally very humid, especially during the wet season from October through to March. During the dry season the humidity eases. The temperatures stay roughly the same all year with highs of 34°C and lows of 19°C. In winter the nights can be a bit chilly. The Outback tends to have really cold nights during Australian winter but therefore the days won’t be as hot as they are in summer as well.
Alice Springs lies in the middle of the Red Centre and is hot and dry during the day and comparatively cold at night. In winter the temperatures are in the early twenties during the day but can drop down to freezing during the night. In summer you will see hot days and nights and experience only little humidity. There is very little rainfall in the Outback.
Darwin lies right on the so-called monsoon belt and sees torrential rain from December through to March. At this time it is also very humid with the humidity easing in the winter. The temperatures stay rather constant all year round between 34°C and 26°C even though the night temperatures drop lower in winter.